## Colloidal GOld page 2: (page created November 2007)
## The drinking-gold of the alchemists, An old medicine rediscovered, by Alchemy & Paracelsus Medicine http://www.horusmedia.de/2001-aurum/aurum-en.php
first published in the German magazine esotera 12/2001 (side 20-23)
An old medicine rediscovered – “The drinking-gold of the alchemists”
Far back in the Middle Ages, Paracelsus praised its medical powers. Today aurum potabile, the alchemists cure-all, has again become word of mouth, so to speak. Thats because after many centuries, by keeping to the instructions in ancient texts, it has again become possible to produce it. Meanwhile, holistic doctors have used the medicine with great success
By Ulrich Arndt
At first, Reiner Moll, head of the Privatinstitut fur Naturheilweisen Arkanum (Private Institute for Naturopathy) in Neusass near Augsburg in Bavaria, was skeptical: A cure- all? Meanwhile, after almost one year of practical application, he has experienced treatment successes he cant explain: All kinds of chronic disease, states of pain, and skin diseases can be alleviated or even completely cured. For instance, the rashes of a 32-year-old man from which he had suffered for five years vanished within a fortnight after rubbing them with the gold medicine. Another patient who was restling with the consequences of burns she had incurred fifteen years ago also recovered after two weeks. A 48-year-old aviation engineer who suffered from severe chronic bronchitis and could hardly speak any more was free from pain after one week and was able to talk normally again. On the whole, patients feel vitalized, their organism regenerates, their mind becomes more stable, Moll sums it up.
# Medieval medicine: Aurum potabile, the drinking-gold of the alchemists, is a medieval medicine which was praised enthusiastically back then. The instructions for its preparation have been lost, though; only fragmentary allusions and descriptions in symbolic code have remained. For instance, the famous medieval German physician and alchemist Paracelsus (1493-1541) raved: Of all Elixirs, Gold is supreme and the most important for us, for it can keep the body indestructible. Drinkable gold will cure all illnesses, it renews and restores.”
# Purification of juices : In his writings, Paracelsus alleged to have cured the most diverse chronic illnesses and many hopeless cases. He also said he had taken it as a prophylactic measure and so protected himself against infections like the Plague. Furthermore, it was possible to detoxicate and purge the whole system with it: Over the course of everal months its ingestion would thoroughly cleanse all juices, regenerating the blood, the cells, and thus the whole organism, the traditional reports allege.
Nowadays there are homeopathic gold medicines that contain gold information, and there are preparations from gold colloids containing very small gold molecules. In addition, medical research has shown that even small amounts of gold we sometimes ingest with our food can influence the bodys metabolism and nervous system positively.
For centuries, alchemistic knowledge has been passed on only orally
# The sunlike power of gold: According to alchemistic concepts gold possesses strong sunlike powers. Therefore, in man, it strengthens the sun force, will impart greater vitality and a sunny frame of mind. The alchemist Isaacus Hollandus wrote in the 15th century: Firstly, this Aurum Potabile is an excellent treasure and arcanum safeguarding the body from many illnesses, as it strengthens the heart and the spirits…
According to recent therapeutic experience at the Privatinstitut für Naturheilweisen drinking-gold can be employed:
– as an emergency cure for abdominal pain, headaches, motion sickness, numbness after local anesthesia at the dentists, toothaches after dental treatment. Children respond especially quickly;
– Against depression, feelings of inner unrest and strife, anxiety states; generally in order to cheer a patient up and strengthen his/her confidence;
– as a supporting therapy to assist other treatment;
– against all kinds of pain, skin diseases, chronic illnesses, wounds that wont heal, and other ailments.
Still, the effects of drinkable gold described by Paracelsus and others go far beyond that. Their knowledge about the preparation was lost, though, nd by the 19th century, at the latest, their reports were regarded as boundless exaggerations by medieval quacks or just plain charlatanism, although even today Paracelsus counts as the founding father of modern medicine. But the knowledge about an extraordinary medicine made from gold lived on in popular belief, and even today there are supposed healing liquors like Danziger Goldwasser (Danzig Gold Water) in which tiny gold particles are floating.
# Secret solvent: Only recently, at the turn of the millennium in the summer of 2000, it became possible to decipher the coded medieval laboratory manuals. According to those a process over several months is needed in which the metallic gold is completely dissolved. Judged by modern chemical standards, this is only possible with the strongest acids. But centuries ago, alchemists had found a much simpler natural way through which it is also possible by means of a weak organic solvent by means of the so-called philosophical mercury. What this actually means is kept strictly secret by the modern manufacturers, though. They will only say that the metal is actually dissolved. About 130 grams are needed to produce one litre of concentrated alchemistic Gold Essence. After the dissolution, over the course of several weeks, the liquid is being distilled, purified and exposed to the light of the sun and the moon as well as to planetary influences according to certain precise guidelines.
# Body, soul and spirit: The result is an alcoholic essence which contains just a few traces of the metal in an organic compound (as if a plant had metabolized it). Still, according to the symbolic alchemistic descriptions, it contains the golds healing power, i.e. spirit, soul and purified material body of the sun metal in modern terms, the healing information of the golds body, soul and spirit.
# Modern tests: Whats actually the matter with this mysterious liquid has been investigated by the LIFE TEST Institute, a neutral institute for biophysical research. In cooperation with several technical colleges and therapists, chemical analyses and numerous tests from the field of alternative medicine were conducted, comprising Kirlian photography, measurements of meridian energy, and biophoton measurements (biophotons is the technical term for the light emitted by the DNA, the genetic substance, in our cells that regulates our metabolism). The result: even with external application the Aurum Potabile stimulates life energy, the Chi of the acupuncture meridians. People become more vital, their powers of self-healing are strengthened, and they simply feel great.
These findings were corroborated by practical experience. At the Privatinstitut fur Naturheilweisen Arkanum in Bavaria, more than 70 patients have been treated up to now with Aurum Potabile internally or externally with remarkable success: To an amazing degree, open wounds, skin diseases, inflammations, chronic pain states or a tumor in the ear got better only through Aurum Potabile (see sidebar).
# Headaches, belly-aches: These patients had been treated before with current methods of orthodox medicine and naturopathy, but didnt make any substantial progress. Aurum Potabile will also greatly alleviate everyday ailments like headaches, belly-aches, indisposition or motion sickness, Arkanum director Reiner Moll reports.
As a supporting therapy to other orthodox or naturopathy treatment, Aurum Potabile will speed up recovery and reduce the occurrence of negative side effects.It detoxifies the organism, stabilizes mentally and strengthens the personality. I dont know anything, Moll says, which would so thoroughly stabilize a persons body and mind with all kinds of different conditions. Its like a kind of catalyst for recovery similar to a very precise homeopathic remedy. That painful search for the individually suitable remedy which often takes weeks is completely unnecessary, though.
# Universal healing power: Judging from Molls experience, Aurum Potabile actually does develop universal healing power, just as Paracelsus and others described it. Still, that doesnt make it a miracle cure. Like many other natural remedies, it develops its most intense effects only when patients assist their own recovery by changing unwholesome life-styles. In addition, one should drink at least two litres a day of spring water or uncarbonated water low in minerals and eat healthy food as much as possible in order to assist the washing-out of wastes and toxins induced by the drinking-gold.
Nevertheless it is unclear how the drinking-gold can actually bring about such profound harmonization. According to the alchemistic teachings the Aurum Potabile is supposed to stimulate three of the seven principal human energy centres: the root, heart and crown chakras (chakras are known in Alchemy as seals or gates of the planets). They are regarded as the principal energetic control centres..
# Development of consciousness: Moreover, drinking-gold is said to cure by supplying light energy, by strengthening the natural order of body, spirit and soul and by stimulating awareness of deeper causes of disease. In alchemy, this process does not end with mere repair of an organism. Just like drinking-gold with its light energy drives away the darkness of disease in the body, it could lighten the whole personality in modern words: it assists the development of ones personality and awareness.
# Lead turns into gold: Alchemists preserved the knowledge about such profound transformations in human beings in the form of symbolic images: as a transformation of black lead into light gold, which equals the legendary Great Work. Aurum Potabile was regarded as the most important tool in that process. Of course, there is no recent information about these spiritual effects. Only the positive influence upon the human body, mind and energy system have been documented up to now but they are amazing enough.
Translated by Michael Schaefer, Germany 2003.
(to link the article above use: #CGM)
Gold compounds have been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases for more than 75 years, but until now, how the metals work has been a mystery. Harvard Medical School researchers report in the Feb. 27 issue of Nature Chemical Biology that special forms of gold, platinum, and other classes of medicinal metals work by stripping bacteria and virus particles from the grasp of a key immune system protein.
“We were searching for a new drug to treat autoimmune diseases,” says Brian DeDecker, PhD, HMS post-doctoral student in the Department of Cell Biology and a study co-author. At the time of this work, DeDecker was in the Harvard Medical School Institute of Chemistry and Cell Biology, which uses powerful chemical tools to illuminate complex biological processes and provide new leads for drug development. “But instead we discovered a biochemical mechanism that may help explain how an old drug works.”
DeDecker and co-author Stephen De Wall, PhD, undertook a large-scale search for new drugs that would suppress the function of an important component of the immune system, MHC class II proteins, which are bacteria and viruses, but sometimes this process goes awry and the immune system turns towards the body itself causing autoimmune diseases such as Juvenile diabetes, Lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
During their search through thousands of compounds they found that the known cancer drug, Cisplatin, a drug containing the metal platinum, directly stripped foreign molecules from the MHC class II protein. From there, they found that platinum was just one member of a class of metals, including a special form of gold, that all render MHC class II proteins inactive.
In subsequent experiments in cell culture, gold compounds were shown to render the immune system antigen presenting cells inactive, further strengthening this connection. These findings now give researches a mechanism of gold drug action that can be tested and explored directly in diseased tissues.
In 1890, a German doctor named Robert Koch found that gold effectively killed the bacteria that caused tuberculosis. In the 1930s, based on a widely held but probably erroneous connection at the time between tuberculosis and rheumatoid arthritis, a French doctor, Jacques Forestier, developed the use of gold drugs for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Gold drugs have been used since then as an effective treatment for this and other autoimmune diseases such as Lupus, but treatment can take months for action and sometimes presents severe side effects which have diminished their use in recent years.
With this new understanding of how these metals function, it may now be possible to develop a new generation of gold-based drugs for treating rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases that are more effective with fewer side effects. From Harvard Medical School
(to link the article above use: #CGH)
## Purple Gold, Nick Kollerstrom http://www.alchemywebsite.com/kollerstrom_purple_gold.html
To make your own purple gold, prepare a dilute solution of gold chloride, say 0.01%, and a solution of Rochelle salt  (a weak reducing agent), say 1%. Add the one to the other, and there, before your amazed gaze, the solution will slowly grow into pure purple.
Or, maybe it wont. It seems quite temperamental. I tried to repeat the experiment using tap water instead of distilled and a dirty blackish hue appeared. But, the next day this had turned ruby-red (see below). Rochelle salt is essentially prepared from tartar that settles out from wine as it ferments , so maybe this is part of the mystical meaning of the colour: a wine-compound, on the very border between organic and inorganic, living and dead, is needed to make the marvellous purple gold.
A colleague had heard that adding a few drops of some essential oil to the solution would help to keep it in suspension. A week later he came back, and the original purple solution had turned blue.
Figure: purple gold solution that I made on 23.5.05, using Rochelle salt, and on the right my attempt at purple of Cassius.
What used to be called ‘Purple of Cassius’ is made by adding some tin to a very dilute gold solution. Just what the tin does to produce this purple hue remains a mystery. I made up a solution of stannous chloride, which grows cloudy (I guess the hydroxide is formed), and then adding this to the gold solution a rich hue of golden-amber appeared. This is quite impressive but isnt Purple of Cassius! This pleasant amber hue will last for a week or so, then it settles out.
One can also reduce the gold by using formaldehyde. On this method, the gold solution needs to be made alkaline: I here added some bicarbonate of soda. Adding a drop of formaldehyde, nothing happens for quite a while. After several minutes, the solution grows purple. This is a rather muddy hue and far from being so attractive as that produced by the Rochelle salt. But, it is of interest to see a reaction that takes some minutes to react.
If you can get some tri-sodium citrate then: add a few ml of gold chloride to boiling water, then add some 1% tri-sodium citrate and boil until the colour develops (I havent tried this). Sunlight will tend to precipitate the colloid, so the solution is best kept in shady spot.
I could hardly find anything written on this subject since Michael Faradays essay. Experiential chemistry has vanished from our civilisation and I suggest we need to bring it back again. Gold is the precious Sun-metal: that is to say, it expresses and tells us about solar glory. Its being is very much radiant, and that is a matter which concerns high dilutions. Gold does not occur in seams or veins like other metals, rather it occurs spread out through Earths crust in a high dilution.
Beautiful glasses of pink and ruby red are made using gold, at about 10-15 parts per million. Every alchemist should have one: There are other chemicals which produce red glass, but none which have the special magic of gold ruby. Hear, hear! They arent expensive. While youre at it, why not also ask for a deep-blue cobalt-hued beaker? Talking with glaziers, they seemed perplexed by the way I was mainly interested in the metal used in the pigments. It in indeed a thrill to be invited into the laboratory, and behold the fiercely-glowing furnace. But, one feels is a sense of tragedy, because modern glaziers do not know what metal is producing a given hue. The companies wont reveal this, and indeed a large number of compounds may be involved. Thus, you can try asking for a glass whose hue derives from a copper pigment (turquoise, maybe?), but I doubt whether you will get very far!
The picture shows a lovely vase of ruby gold, and next to it a colloidal solution of gold having an identical hue. I made this using the tartar solution as described above, but it may have been too concentrated because the whole solution went black. Then the next day it had developed into this ruby hue. It is quite stable, and the photo was taken a month after it was made.
I tried the experiments again in mid-July. Nothing happened with the Rochelle salt solution, but the stannous chloride with gold gave a rather reddish amber hue, here shown, which precipitated in a few days, as the red colour deepened. Using the formaldehyde method gave a dusky purple, also shown. The mixture did nothing for five minutes, then rather suddenly turned a deep purple. That does impress people.
COLLOIDAL GOLD: In the 1930s, before anyone had colour photography, Lily Kolisko published chromatogram-images made by having a 1% solution of gold chloride rising up the filterpaper and drying, in sunlight; then she let another lot of solution rise up through it, in a larger quantity. Some purplish hues were visible, on one was made in the early morning of 19.6.36, a couple of hours after a solar eclipse. I obtained golden-type hues by this method, but nothing exotic like hers.
Gold can be used in photography, as it is precipitated by sunlight. Sir John Herschel pioneered this process back in 1832, and then it was rather sidelined by use of silver. A modern chemist has reconstructed and improved this gold-chloride based photography method. After thousands of experiments over years, he found out how to ‘tame’ the vigorous and unpredictable behaviour of the gold salts (I was relieved to hear this). Just from one gold salt, a startling variety of colours would appear:
The colours so obtained, including pink, magenta, brown, purple, violet, blue and green, are not of course ‘true to life’ -they might even be described as surreal- because this is still essentially a monochrome printing process It may therefore seem incomprehensible that a single, pure substance -gold, in a finely divided state- can appear with so many different colours.
As the Sun-metal, gold manifests these different colours of the daytime: it is of the essence of gold, that it wants to do this. Lets try to picture it alchemically in these terms, rather than just chemically in terms of the different sizes of the colloid-particles.
# GOLD-COLOURED GLASS: There is a German company that is able to make different hues of glass from gold: all colours except green, I was informed. No English glazier can make any glass hue other than ruby, using gold and those who can do that are few enough. Clearly, glasses of different hues made from gold would be of especial value for therapeutic work: healing light. However, this German company would not let me have any pictures of the glass they make: their book will be coming out at the end of 2006 and one has to wait until then!
# CHARTRES CATHEDRAL: The glorious blues and reds of the stained-glass windows at Chartres were made from copper. A glazier friend who had published on Medieval glassmaking spent a few days around Chartres and then informed me of this. There was no possibility of it being gold, he explained, because ruby-gold glass was not invented until the 17th century. He admired the blue glass formed but was especially in awe of the red hues, made from copper. I had spent about twenty years wondering about this: Louis Charpentier, in his The Mysteries of Chartres Cathedral (1966) did not know.
By way of trying to stimulate an interest in practical chemistry, here is the frontispiece of a 17th-century German textbook, when chemistry was just emerging from alchemy. It was published just after the recipe for making ruby-gold glass was found.
–  Chemically, it is potassium sodium tartrate. It exhibits double refraction and is used in silvering mirrors. Crystals of Rochelle salt are easily grown and are used in piezoelectric devices, e.g., crystal microphones.
–  These recipes appeared in The Hermetic Journal, Issue 41, p.20 (anon.), kindly supplied by Adam McLean.
–  Broadly speaking, one adds sodium carbonate to Cream of Tartar until it stops fizzing. Then, allow the solution to crystallise
–  http://www.fiz.uni-lj.si/~dolinsek/rochelle_salt.htm
–  Mr Guy Ogilvie, alchemist, prepared the Rochelle salt. I never saw the blue hue, which, he claimed, remained for a couple of weeks.
–  The recipe said that it might be helpful to add traces of stannic chloride, which I tried. It added that the colour would vary depending on the acid-alkali balance but, I didnt find this.
–  Michael Faraday Experimental Relations of gold and other metals to Light 1857 Philosophical Transactions, 147, Part I, pp. 145-181.
–  One glazier explained to me: I use Sodium Tetrachloroaurate, a very acidic heavy yellow liquid which is 40% gold by weight. I last worked with it when I was doing a research contract for Waterford Crystal about 10 years ago. I got the most beautiful rose pinks at about 16ppm gold in the glass, but it was not going to be possible for them to reproduce it on an industrial scale. The trouble with gold is it is very dense and sinks to the bottom quite quickly, which makes colour control extremely difficult. (P.H.)
–  http://www.glass.co.nz/gibruby.htm
–  Order from glazier Anthony Stern: www.anthonysternglass.com
–  L.Kolisko, Gold and the Sun the Total Eclipse of 19.6.36, 1936.
–  http://www.anth.org.uk/Science/kolisko/gold.htm
–  http://www.mikeware.co.uk/mikeware/Prints_of_Gold.html
–  M.Aslam et. al., Aqueous Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles, J. Mater. Chem. 2004,pp.1795-97. 8
–  J.H.Jungken, Chymia experimentalis Curiosa Frankfurt 1681.
(to link the article above use: #CG6)
## To clean highly polluted groundwater, Michael Wong has developed a detergent based on gold http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/innovators/10034946.html
By William Booth Smithsonian magazine, October 2007
“I admit it does sound crazy,” says Michael Wong of his idea to use gold to clean up toxic waste. Wong plans to combine gold with palladiuman even more precious metalto treat polluted groundwater beneath waste dumps and contaminated factories and military sites. “It not only works faster [than current methods], but a hundred times faster,” Wong says, “and I bet it will be cheaper too.”
A golden detergent? Here is Wong’s trick: he creates nanoparticles of gold. In his realm, the work product is measured not in carats but in atoms. A thimbleful of coffee-colored solution contains 100 trillion gold sphereseach only 15 atoms wide, or about the width of a virus. Upon every golden nanosphere, Wong and his team dust a dash of palladium atoms. Think of an infinitely small ice-cream scoop flecked with sprinkles.
The 35-year-old Caltech and MIT graduate says he had not given toxic waste much thought until three years ago when one of his colleagues at Rice University (where he is a recently tenured professor of chemical engineering) came to him and said, “I have a problem,” meaning something interesting to work on.
The problem concerned the suspected carcinogen trichloroethene, or TCE, “one of the most ubiquitous pollutants out there,” says Wong, and “a really nasty molecule.” The clear, sweet-smelling solvent has been used for decades to degrease metal parts in factories and government facilities. “It’s everywhere,” Wong adds. “We used TCE in our own labs.” NASA assembly plants are contaminated with it, as are some of the most advanced research laboratories in the nation. The Environmental Protection Agency says 60 percent of Superfund cleanup sites harbor TCE; the Department of Defense says 1,400 of its facilities do. Estimated cleanup costs run to $5 billion just for the Defense sites.
TCE lingers like a bad houseguest, especially if handled carelessly. It accumulates in soil and can persist for years in groundwater. In a report last year, the National Research Council found that TCE was a potential cause of kidney cancer; it’s also associated with liver problems, autoimmune disease and impaired neurological function.
Currently, the most common method of removing TCE from groundwater is to “pump and treat,” Wong saysto pump the water out of the ground and run it through a filter made of activated carbon. (“Think of it as a big Brita water filter,” he says.) The carbon grains soak up TCE like a sponge, but the process leaves behind TCE-laden filters that have to be stored or burned. “So you haven’t really gotten rid of anything,” Wong says. “You’ve just moved it from one place to another.”
This is where Wong comes in. He began thinking about using nanoparticles as a catalyst to react with the TCE and break it down into what he calls “happy byproducts.”
From the scientific literature, Wong knew that palladium had shown some promise at deconstructing TCE. “Palladium works OK, but it didn’t work hard enough,” Wong says. So he and his team began trying various recipes, and after six months reached a eureka moment when they sculpted a palladium-covered core of gold atoms.
“We didn’t believe it at first, because the gold-palladium nanoparticles were just so much more efficientlike, a hundred times more efficient,” he says. “You see, gold itself doesn’t do anything to TCE.” But something very interesting happens at the interface where gold, palladium and TCE meet.
And just what is it? “We don’t know!” says Wong. “We don’t understand the chemistry. But we don’t understand it in a good way,” meaning he believes that his team will figure it out soon. “Our catalyst is doing something really goofy.”
Goofy it may be, but Wong’s nanodetergent breaks TCE down into relatively harmless ethane and chloride salts. He and his team are now working with engineers to build a real-sized reactor to field-test the nanoparticles at a polluted site. They hope to be scrubbing TCE in about a year, and then they’ll see whether they have the cost-efficient cleaner they seek.
“It’s very nice research,” says Galen Stucky, a chemistry professor at the University of California at Santa Barbara, where Wong did his postdoctoral studies. “Mike is a very creative guy with good insights, and what he is doing is going to have a major impact on the much bigger issue of water and water purification over the next ten years.”
Wong was born in Quebec City, Quebec, and grew up in Sacramento, California, where his mother was an accountant and his father ran a restaurant. His father also owned a strip mall where a tenant’s dry-cleaning business became contaminated with a chemical cousin of TCE. “My dad was freaked out,” Wong recalls. “He got fined, since he owned the mall. He was legally responsible. He really got dinged [for tens of thousands of dollars in fines]. So my dad has a real interest in my work. He keeps telling me, Hurry up, son!’ ”
William Booth is a reporter for the Washington Post who is based in Los Angeles.
(to link the article above use: #CGC)
## Suspected quasi-bonded Na3Au-m configuration, http://www.subtleenergies.com/ORMUS/research/quasibnd.htm
“Theory regarding the suspected quasi-bonded Na3Au-m configuration and atomic configuration of Bose-Einstein condensates of transition elements”
Author: August Dunning: Trans-Metal Research Group, Washington DC
Our suspicion is that during dissolution of NaOH in the wet method causing a raise in pH by the Hydroxyl group, a ring of Na is formed that provides the necessary electro-negative field that the electro-positive Au-m BEC seeks. This may ultimately provide the actual potential charge of the Au-M atom by back engineering it as the opposite to the electro-negative charge inside the ring structure*
Possible co-planar orientation of the Au-m atom inside the tri-sodium bond ring.
In this configuration, the monatomic atom rests inside the second (2s) and third (2p) shell boundary of the sodium atom in its bonded radius after valence bonding.
This arrangement places the electro-positive monatomic inside the electro-negative field of three over-lapping electron orbitals as seen in the illustrations above.
Note: that a period 6 atom is .262 nm in radius before BEC. After BEC atoms of this period are mostly nuclei surrounded by bosons, or light and the pseudo-physical boundary, that the electron shells tend to represent, is no longer existent as the positive screen field collapses the bosons into a disc in the plane of rotation
Some researchers have suspected a hex ring of sodium as opposed to a tri-ring. Both tri-ring and hex-ring postulations are based on a theory of variable quantal field potential in these elements. More than likely both rings may play a role depending on the mass-size differences seen in stable BEC’s that started as odd or even numbered proton transition elements.
– The Na6 hex-ring might develop with the two step to stable configuration of the double nuclei elements like 45-Rhodium, 77-Iridium, 79-Gold, 47-Silver, 27-Cobalt, etc., which forces merging of same-nuclei to seek a more stable state.
– The Na3 tri-ring may develop with the one step to stable BEC seen in even numbered proton transition elements like 78-Platinum, 44-Ruthenium, 76-Osmium, 46-Palladium and perhaps all period four transition elements.
It should be noted that this hexagonal ring theory may not be possible as:
– The available valence bonds do not create strong enough ring bonds to form a strong, stable hexagonal ring
– Hex rings usually require three alternating single bonds and double bonds that sodium atoms can not offer.
– Radius may be much smaller and variable about the spinning nucleus lobes of the deformed nuclei with a radial quantal potential field occupying the former electron shell locations.
– This field may be concentrated into a spinning disk about the nucleus, perpendicular to the spin axis of the atom.
The actual potential quasi-bonding field may only be .09nm in radius, similar to the radius of bonded sodium, and why it may be a tri-sodium that ‘nets’ these elements. The Idea that monatomic BEC’s are at varying energy or quantal levels might be described as follows:
1. Upon destabilization and increased separation of the incomplete outer shell nucleons around the completed shells of a nucleus in a transition element, there is a subsequent cascade effect toward positive screening field increase as the strong binding force is over ridden by the electromagnetic forces, Cooper pairing and super deformation with associated accelerated spin of the expanded nucleus. The odd number proton monatomics may exhibit at least one basic sublevel after BEC, before stabilization of the unpaired valence electron. This is an unbalanced state that may flip from BEC back to metal bonds easily.
This forms an unfinished lower energy m-state, with one electron, as a positron, looking for a partner to Cooper pair with creating a valence funnel.
2. Once another monatomic in the same energy sub level is attracted by the electrostatic force, the valence funnels collapse upon nuclei merging causing positron harmonization and finalized Cooper pairing, thus forming a stable higher energy level configuration.
Chemical bonding is not available in this energy state, only quantum coupling employing the Coulomb wave is available for connecting BEC’s. However, in the odd numbered proton transition elements, this forms atomic quantal materials with unusually high mass values, but of little or no weight, and can be made to loose all their gravitational attraction or increase their weight by 300 percent by heating or cooling respectively.
This is now a two dimensional quantum oscillator vibrating near the ZPE as a result of Cooper pairing. The amplified electrostatic forces are driven by the rotating quantal ring with a coulomb wave flowing out along the plane of rotation. The former two unpaired electron fermions are now balanced into a boson and superconduction begins with the associated Meissner field generation.
Much has been made of the decrease in weight these elements exhibit after BEC.
This might be explained by studies involving spinning and stationary masses in a gravity field.
Michael Faraday 1831 : Invention of the one piece Homopolar Generator exhibiting inertial field phenomena
Podkletnov, E and R Nieminen, Physica C 203, 1992, pg 441-444 North-Holland
“A possibility of gravitational shielding by bulk Yba2Cu307-x superconductor”
– Gravity is attenuated above a spinning superconductor, and the attenuation is related to the spin rate and the frequency of the electromagnetic field levitating the object.
– The shielding force depends on the rotational speed of the disc and has a tendency to increase with the speed of rotation.
– Monatomic elements will loose 4/9 of their gravitational weight after BEC.
– These elements can be made to weigh less than zero.
– Beyond the zero weight point they visually disappear, but are still measurable as a negative weight.
– When cooled they gain weight.
– Rotating objects falling in a gravitational field are accelerated at a rate greater than ‘G’.
– Pendula utilizing bob weights which are rotating, swing non sinusoidally with increased periods.
– A precessing (spin node advancement) gyroscope has an anomalous inertial mass, greater than it’s gravitational mass.
– Two gyroscopes on the same axle, spinning counter rotationally at 7600 rpm with an additional 4 rps of the support cylinder, weighed 4 – 6 lbs. less than its 276 lb. starting weight while operating.
– Rotating objects create an inertial field that distorts (slows) time.
This phenomena may be a distortion of normally isotropic space, the amount of distortion being represented by the reflected internally constrained forces explicitly developed by the machine, or object in rotation.
These experiment results are not always along the gravity gradient, indicating discrete field phenomena.
These experiments may exploit time as an aspect of the ZPE.
In Monatomic stable BEC state of elements of the transition series, this weight loss phenomena may be explained by understanding that these elements are spinning and the former electrons are now rotating in a plane perpendicular to the spin axis.
This may give them a relative vector force like any flow of electrons through a wire as described as the ‘left hand rule’.
In the left hand rule, a flow of electrons will generate an electromagnetic field rotating clockwise to the direction of flow:
This is remarkably like the rotational field phenomena described by the above authors, and is evident in the structure of the high spin monatomic elements as depicted below
In addition to the gravitational weight changes due to rotating masses, the monatomic atom generates a Meissner field that excludes gravity when energetic enough, and the effect on the atom caused by Cooper pairing forces the atom to vibrate at, or very near, the residuum vibration, ‘k’.
A very curious relationship between ground state and high spin state may be expressed in the conditions of the electrons and nucleons as an inverse relationship.
– Ground state atoms have stable nuclei and active electrons
– high spin atoms have active nuclei and stable (former) electrons as bosons
When an examination of the electron shells by energy level and the amounts of electrons found in each is done, the distribution of electrons might be shown to represent a boson toroidal ring that has been lowered in energy level and expanded out amongst electron orbitals as fermions of various energies. Transition elements after BEC may, because of their atomic mass, enable them to produce a quantal disc with enough potential to charge the nucleus with static electric energy thus generating the coulomb wave used in resonance connectivity and deformation of the nucleus as the ‘charging’ device of the high spin atoms.
Distribution of electrons per energy level
Another way to view this is by considering the electrons as being either expanded or collapsed, and considering their energy levels as particles or bosons.
– In the particle state the positive screening potential of the nucleus maintains distancing by demanding ordered pairs of time forward and time reverse electrons as they fill the electron orbitals.
– In the BEC process, ordered pairs in the electron shells Cooper pair as the Positive screening potential expands causing time reverse electrons, now in a positive field, to change into positrons, allowing them to harmonize and Cooper pair with the time forward electrons and a cascade of higher and higher spin, greater and greater positive field, lower and lower strong binding force and higher and higher electrostatic forces occurs.
I propose: that the electrostatic forces are being driven by the friction between the nucleus and the boson quantal field that is vibrating near the ZPE and taping the space-time fabric to bring energy into an overunity condition that these m-state elements represent and is pumping energy into the system.
My feeling is that once the electrons Cooper pair, they all achieve a more or less identical energy state and tend to congregate close to the nucleus with distance regulated by spin rate inertial field changes. Double nuclei in the odd proton transition element BEC’s have a bigger Nucleus, but perhaps not a greater radius of quantal field potential by the addition of the second set of Bosons. As massless as photons are, they very well might be under different constraints than the remaining nucleus particles and no longer follow predicted solid matter behavior.
Other thoughts to consider:
It has been demonstrated that a spinning disk can attenuate gravity above the disk along the gravity gradient.
– The velocity of the radial quantal disk theorized as rotating around the spinning nucleus may play a part in the generating of the Meissner field, a gravity excluding field, seen in these superconductors and a possible mechanism in its generation.
– This gravitational attenuation along the spin axis may additionally be involved in the quasi-bonding of the sodium atom rings described above.
– The tuning of the atom to the Planck constant during Cooper pairing forces the atom to vibrate near the Zero Point Energy, E0 = hf x ½, or the spectral energy density ‘p’ of the Zero-point fluctuation as a function of that frequency, ‘w’, such that p(w) = kw3
– These elements may be overunity systems.
It has been hypothesized that electrons lose energy, but restore the loss by slipping into the zero point to tap the space-time fabric. BEC’s are mostly in the space-time fabric with their converted electrons as bosons.
August Dunning,Transparent Metal Research Group
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## Unconjugated Colloidal Gold Probes, SPI-Mark http://www.2spi.com/catalog/chem/gold-4.shtml
Do you own conjugations! Also, great for perfusion studies!
SPI-Mark unconjugated gold colloidal suspensions are of outstanding EM quality, exhibit virtually no clumping and exhibit very tight size distribution ranges, so tight in fact, that triple tagging experiments are no problem at all. Numerous protocols have now been published, and many are application specific, but for the convenience of SPI-Mark customers, we provide a generalized protocol, but it is given more for the purpose of showing generally what is involved, rather than to serve as a specific protocol for a specific experiment.
The starting material for the SPI-Mark gold conjugates is the same as what is offered here as unconjugated gold colloidal suspensions. In other words, these colloids are produced with a very tight size distribution, the actual size being measured by TEM and the data is provided on the data sheet sent with each product. The product is supplied in sterile containers ready for conjugation or other applications, such as perfusion.
Shelf-life stability of the colloid: The product is guaranteed stable stable for 12 months if stored unopened at 4° C. Do not freeze. Note that we do not offer unconjugated gold in sizes less than 2 nm because the stability of such suspensions is unacceptable in terms of offering such an unstable product comercially. Once made, the unconjugated colloid has to be used within 24 hours. That is why gold of 1 nm is offered only as a stable conjugate, never as the unconjugated colloid.
Other sometimes useful information: Colloidal particles in this size range, including gold, are inherently unstable. However, using proprietary technology, SPI-Mark colloidal gold unconjugated particles have no protein whatsoever and are free of surfactants, both of which can interfere with experimental results. We are often times asked about “what else” is present besides the gold colloid and water. There will be trace amounts of sodium citrate, tannic acid & potassium carbonate present and without them, the suspension would become unstable and the gold would precipitate out.
However, the smallest colloidal particle that we can make and still be stable, using this technology is 2.6 nm. So all SPI-Mark unconjugated gold products, of 2.6 nm or larger are indeed free of surfactants and protein, as indicated above. But should we be asked to custom make gold colloid particles, unconjugated, smaller than this size, then there would be a protein coating such as BSA.
Amount of gold present: Each liter of colloidal suspension contains approximately 0.1g of gold (colloidal) particles. The final product is sold with an optical density as measured at 520 nm of 1.1 ±0.1 for colloid sizes of 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 nm. The optical density for smaller sizes, that is, 2, 5 and 10 nm, is 0.85.
There is one other important point to note: The basic for the technology that permits the manufacture of stable suspensions (e.g. one in which the particles don’t clump) without a stabilization coating is the overall net charge on the colloidal particle surfaces is negative, and this provides the mechanism by which particles repel one another and the suspension remains stable. However, excessive washing of the colloid can remove or destroy this charge and the stable suspension will collapse. It should be further noted that the 2.6 nm size is “at the edge” that is, even the slightest bit of washing of the colloid will cause the collapse of the suspension immediately. However, dilution of the suspension is possible with ultra pure water. This is possible because of the extremely low levels of the reducing salts remaining in the product.
Stability information: The SPI-Mark gold suspensions are very stable because all of the gold, in the manufacturing process, has been reduced to the colloidal metal form with absolutely no gold left in solution. In addition, there are only trace amounts of the reducing salt used in the conversion. Higher amounts of the reducing salts are one of the main reasons for product instability that have been encountered with colloidal gold suspensions from other sources. This is of course a complicated issue and one should be aware of some of the other stability considerations http://www.2spi.com/catalog/chem/gold-4-considerations.html .
Selection of the right colloid gold particle size: The entire product range of the SPI-Mark unconjugated colloidal gold particles is given below. The selection of the right particle size depends on the your specific application and the way you would be anticipating using the product.
– Light Microscopy: For light microscopy, in conjunction with silver enhancing, the smaller sizes are recommended (2nm and 5nm). As a general rule of thumb, smaller particles give greater specificity. Also, smaller particle suspensions are inherently more stable and have somewhat longer shelf lives.
– Electron Microscopy (TEM and SEM): For transmission electron microscopy (TEM) any particle size may be used, the smaller particles giving the highest labelling specificity (efficiency). The magnification required for the TEM study determines the particle size to be used. Smaller particles may be silver enhanced using the SPI-Mark Silver Enhancement Kit http://www.2spi.com/catalog/chem/silver-enhancement-kit-immunogold.shtml for viewing at lower magnifications.
For scanning electron microscopy (SEM), particles of 20nm, 30nm or 40nm may be used together with backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. However, smaller particles will give a higher labelling intensity and may be silver enhanced.
– Blotting procedures: For blotting applications, the larger particles give the most visible stain without silver enhancing. Larger particles may produce more steric hindrance to the labelling, however, resulting in a lower specificity of the experiment. The compromise is usually between 20-40nm for most blotting applications. If silver enhancement is contemplated, we recommend, for the best results, the 2nm or 5nm gold particles.
Restriction of use statement: The SPI-Mark Unconjugated Colloidal Gold is for in vitro research only and it is most definitely not for in vivo research. SPI Supplies can not take any responsibility for the use of this product family in human or animal research and would not recommend or condone it.
For your information the colloid will contain trace elements of sodium citrate, tannic acid & potassium carbonate. The toxic effects of these trace chemicals and the effect of the colloid in this way on rats has not, to my knowledge, been tested.
Also, the SPI-Mark unconjugated gold particles are ideal for the most demanding of perfusion studies. They are provided in sterile bottles. We report below other critical information about the SPI-Mark Unconjugated Gold particles:
Colloidal Gold Size Particle Size Distribution (% CV) Particles per ml
2 || – || 15 x 1013
5 || 13
10 || 12
15 || 12
20 || 11
30 || 11
40 || 10
50 || 10
60 || 10
80 || 10
100 || 9
150 || 9
200 || 8
250 || 8
(to link the article above use: #CGP)